As featured in NCBI, Excess weight is an established risk factor for type 2 diabetes, yet most obese individuals do not develop type 2 diabetes. Recent studies have identified “links” between obesity and type 2 diabetes involving pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6), insulin resistance, deranged fatty acid metabolism, and cellular processes such as mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress. These interactions are complex, with the relative importance of each unclearly defined. Further genetic studies may elucidate additional common pathophysiological pathways for obesity and diabetes and identify promising new treatment targets. As physicians frequently prescribe glucose-lowering medications associated with weight gain, trade-offs between glycemic control and body weight with current therapeutic options need more consideration. This issue is particularly pressing given accumulating evidence that even modest weight reduction—whether through lifestyle/behavioral interventions, obesity medications, or bariatric surgery—can improve glycemic control and reduce diabetes risk. In the below, you’ll discover the exact process by which obesity causes diabetes (and vice versa).